Day 2 :
Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, India
Pramod Jog is Professor of Pediatrics at D.Y. Patil Medical College, Pune, India. He has been the President of Indian Academy of Pediatrics, 2016. He is standing committee member of IPA (International Pediatric Association) 2016-19, steering committee member of GAVI (CSO) 2016-19 and Associate Fellow.
Vaccines recommended under the National Immunization Program (NIP) are based on the promises that they will prevent the morbidity and mortality due to the illnesses that they cover, and have a high prevalence in that country. Hence, they become the first priority for any practitioner of medicine—both in public and in private sector. Sometimes, local and seasonal epidemiology will also have a bearing. Besides the burden of the disease, certain child specific conditions will also determine the priorities in vaccination. Affordability and cost of the vaccines remain the biggest challenge in deciding priorities in developing countries. The vaccine having lower cost but comparable efficacy should be preferred to enable more vaccines in one’s immunization kitty. Many ethical questions will also weigh while deciding priorities. This talk discusses role of all these issues on deciding a vaccination schedule of an individual child in office setting. Vaccination remains one of the most cost-effective preventions in the medical field. Even the cost of most expensive vaccines is less than the burden of the morbidity and mortality of the illnesses, and the cost of their treatment thereof. Every child has the right to receive all the approved, age appropriate vaccines in that country. Yet not many would be able to afford them. Therefore, the private practitioner has to prioritize on the offering of as many vaccines as possible to as many children coming to his/her facility. Designing an immunization schedule of an individual child with resource strains is indeed a daunting task. One has to prioritize various vaccines based on disease epidemiology, affordability, risk to that particular child, and also availability of affordable vaccines in the vicinity. Hence, various factors need to be considered while prioritizing the vaccines. These factors can be conveniently placed in the form of a mnemonic Nescafe which stands for need, efficacy, safety, cost, affordability, flexible situations and ethical issues.
Toin University of Yokohama, Japan
Yoshinori HAYAKAWA has graduated Tokyo University, Department of Applied Physics. He received Ph.D. in Tokyo Institute of Technology. He then engaged in Boron-Neutron Therapy in Teikyo University and then Proton Radiation Beam Therapy in University of Tsukuba. He has Measured first in the world acoustic pulse generated in the patient’s body treated by pulsed proton beam. The phenomenon will be used to monitor dose distribution in patients as planed or not. He then becomes a professor in Toin University of Yokohama. He is now a part time lecturer after retirement. He is interested in researches on well-being of human life. He has developed Computer Numerals and New Abacus Numerals for improving basic education to reduce poverty. He has developed Universal Literacy Alphabet as well. He is now developing a plan to eliminate glacial period by reflecting sun light by mirrors on the moon surface and Lagrangian points of moon orbit.
New influenza pandemic might kill 300 million people in the world. Ordinary vaccines are too costly for many people in developing countries. Moreover vaccines are not available in early stages of pandemic. Live attenuated H7N9 Influenza virus vaccine for ferrets using reverse genetics has been reported. They have used green fluorescent protein for vaccine. Ferret nasal mucosa is carcinized using carcinogen for easiness of incubation. This attenuated virus is sprayed to many cultured cancer cell specimen incubated. In some specimen attenuated virus will (mutated to) increase in cancer cells, checked by green fluorescence. Then the virus is tested to infect ferrets and then human volunteers without serious symptom. Virus with strongest virus titer to infect ferrets is selected as seed virus of live vaccine. The seed virus will be increased in incubated cancer cells by bioreactors all over the world and sprayed to vulnerable people, e.g., soldiers, students, people in slams, medical staffs, and people engaged in lifeline. Drones may be used to enhance infection, spraying in slams and markets thin capsules including the live vaccine. Thin capsules are melted at human nasal mucous membrane. Thus basic immunity is gained by many people against dangerous virus. Artificial pandemic against dangerous virus as H7N9, H5N1 etc., are to be created serially with few years interval. Artificial pandemic should be initiated before wild type pandemic starts. The reason is to avoid reassortment (mixture) of virus RNA and to avoid clinical and social confusion. It should not overlap with influenza season. The number of victims seems to be less than one thousands of wild type pandemic. The calculation assumes the number of victims with infectious attenuated live vaccine is less than that of A/H1N1. Similar technique cannot be used for creating biological weapon as toxic virus kill cancer cells for incubation.